November 17, 2010

Reading Comp #6

[1] A common theme of the early twentieth century found in Roth, Harwood, and Massey set the tone for an understanding of styles in architecture and design influenced by fine art. Selecting either Arts + Crafts or Art Nouveau, TRACE the influences of the selected style in more than two nations. In your answer, you should include evidence from the readings and at least two annotated images as support for your analysis of influences.

"Art Nouveau is a complex, eclectic international movement that comprises various styles in Europe and North America." (Harwood pg. 482)

Rejecting historical styles and adopting new ideas was the basis to every designer embracing the Art Nouveau style. The era was greatly influenced by fine art and the Industrial Revolution developing in Europe and the United States, but short lived from about 1890 to 1910.
In Paris, Hector Guimard introduecd Art Nouveau in the Paris Metro entrances with the combination of glass, iron, and stone creating a display of "quality vernacular romanticism with organic, fluid designs" (Harwood pg.498).

Paris Metro

While in places like Barcelona, Antonio Gaudi is creating structures that depict human bodies by moulding pillars and beams into organic curves that capture bone like forms, supporting the body of work.

Casa Batllo

[2] Originating at the Bauhaus and in the work of LeCorbusier, the so-called Modern movement deeply influenced design and architecture of the twentieth century. The great debate raised by this new approach to design involved the presence of the machine in the design process and final products. SPECULATE about the implications of “machines for living” and the famous dictum “less is more” on design today. Use at least one ARTIFACT, SPACE, or BUILDING in your answer, providing a salient image (cited) and annotation to help bolster your argument. [10 POINTS POSSIBLE]

When I think of modern, I think of simple forms, crisp edges, and the bare minimum needed to have the form function as desired. I definitely think that "less is more" in the modernism era and designers of furniture, residential, and businesses began to implement flat lines and basic geometric shapes. Historical forms and structures had no impact on structures of the twentieth century, unlike all the previous design eras. Modernism can be displayed in numerous forms but I think of the unique buildings that are built during this time.

November 12, 2010

Summary of Alternatives & Reflections

In reading and comparing Kacie, Anna and Daniel's responses to the Alternative section they all appeal to the unit breaking the rules of design. Although Kacie focused on how Baroque and Renaissance mashed together in being similar yet bending the rules further than the style before, Anna continued on the importance of cathedrals and the basis of having basic shapes to design structures. Daniel describes how the meshing of every design era together was the main goal of many architects and designers, basically a "collage".

Natalie, Julie, and Caitlyn's responses to the point summary on our reflections unit, all brought up connections that I felt were significant and enjoyable to read. Natalie pulls examples of artifacts changing due to women's fashion or the experience people entail while going to an opera house, both of these seem more aesthetic to me. While Julie expresses the reflection unit to be larger in change of material with iron and glass that speak different design languages and how the effect of constructions change eras from victorian clutter to more simplistic design. Caitlyn focuses on the change in design periods yet how they all tie into structures that also use the new materials introduced in structures like the Crystal Palace.

November 8, 2010

Point: Reflections


Reflections unit has shown the numerous ways that design pulls techniques and styles from past foundations and other countries, while shifting the rules to impact the designs to what they believe to be the "new, better look". With the availability of large exhibits full of traders from different parts of the world, textiles continued to enter the Americas, allowing individuals and designers to enlighten their houses and guests with the foreign objects. A revolution can be defined as a dramatic and wide-reaching change in the way something works or in the way people view it.
The discovery of materials, like iron and glass, on the development of structures was a revolution in itself. It allowed designers and architects to literally bend the rules of a basic foundation, able to add thiner columns, iron arches, and the combination of the glass against the iron creates an experience of nature while still having the stable coverings from the natural elements. Train stations, factories, greenhouses, libraries, arcades, and exhibitions all began to display the use of new materials for their own purposes. Greenhouses benefited from the glass, allowing people in one climate to grow plants in their own climate. While Biblioteque Ste. Genevieve was built with iron arches and skeleton because it was the cheapest way to build the largest library. Overall the Crystal Palace made the largest impact on the world not only for the use of materials but the use of the exhibition center, bringing together extremely different artifacts and materials from all over the world to display for the nation to see and judge and later on take as their own to create a "brand new" mold of the original piece they viewed.
Even with the new discoveries, designers and architects seem to follow the same idea that past eras such as Baroque, Renaissance, and Gothic are basics for all structures to be build and messing them together has an effect that compliments any building or artifact. A cycle of the design eras in always continuous and always changing if many like to think that some have concluded but the truth is that individuals are always looking for ways to enhance, increase, and entertain the idea of a better design than the last!

November 2, 2010

Reading Comp #5

1.[Select an artifact and the type of revolution it symbolizes.]
-Chairs to Sofas. The transformation of seating in the form of chairs to sofas is in part contributed to the change in fashion. Women's dresses began to evolve into larger, fuller skirts. Therefore, the women needed more seating/cushion space. Motif designs also changed from Directoire to Empire, favoring a body silhouette of a round belly and full hips. Harwood said, "Overall design quality begins to deteriorate as furniture becomes larger, bulkier, and more curvilinear.

2.[Locate & Analyze an image of an artifact, a space, a building, and a place, where the east/middle east has an influence on the western word of design and architecture.]
-Space: Japanese Tea Room in the Congress Hotel of Chicago.
The room is filled with dark wood, hanging brass, embroidered carpet and pink blossom flowers all ad to the Japanese look in this room.

-Artifact: Ceramics: Blue & white porcelain
Blue and white porcelain is very common in Japanese ceramics and began to be reproduced in Europe for use. The most commonly used style used in Europe was the Kakiemon style, like the image above.

-Building: Falling Water in Pennsylvania
Luckily, I was able to go on the IAR field trip last year to visit this site and was able to see strong connection between man and nature, as well as the emphasis on the exterior. The sharp lines, extension into nature, placement above the waterfall all continue the Japanese style in Frank Lloyd Wright's design.

-Place: Heale Gardens in Wiltshire, England
The image above is the Japanese tea house in the middle of the Heale Gardens. Underneath the tea house is a flowing stream bringing nature closer to the interior, the Nikko Bridge overtop the stream is steps away. "The Japanese garden was build by laborers brought over from Japan."